Very quickly computer engineering had transformed into a separate scientific- technological direction that has profound significance for the economy, for all spheres of science and technique, for industry, for the defensive capacity of the state, and also for the social sphere development. The special research and design organizations and enterprises on elaboration and production of the computer technique were created.
The Kiev research and production association "Electronmash" was formed on the basis of the Kiev plant "Radiopribor" where the production of the computers was started. The first digital machines, produced by the RPA, were the control machine of wide application "Dnepr" and the electronic machine for fabric incision (EMRT).
On January 1, 1965 on the basis of some departments of the "Radiopribor" the Kiev plant of the computers and control machines was created. It got the constructed industrial building, three workshops (assembly, mechanical and tuning) and special design bureau. Starting from March 1965, after the re-deployment, the plant unfolded its production activity. Its main landmarks are the following:
1965 - continuation of the first in the USSR semi-conductor control machine "Dnepr" production;
1966 - beginning of the machines MIR production for the engineering calculations. The machine was exhibited at the international exhibition "Interogrtechnics-66" and was purchased by the IBM company (USA);
1967 - "Dnepr" exhibition at the Leipzig international fair; the machine became an export product;
1968 - elaboration of the machine "Dnepr-2" was finished and its production was started; the machine was designed to solve a wide range of problems of planned economy, engineering, production processes control, data processing; the machine
1969 - creation of the press-center on the basis of "Dnepr" at the exhibition "Automatization-69"; beginning of the computer "Kashtan" production, which was designed to automate the fabric incisions demands according to the assortment;
1970 - beginning of the Aggregate system of the computer techniques M-3000 first models production;
1971 - plant was awarded with the "Red Labour Banner" order;
1972 - plant transformation into the research and production association "Electronmash"; Research institute of Periphery Equipment creation; the production of the first Soviet computer M-400 built on integrated circuits;
1973 - elaboration of the control computer complex M-4030 supervised by Designer General S.Zabara;
1974 - production of the computer M-6000 and M-400; the plant manufacturing computer technique devices opened in Glukhov as part of the RPA;
1975 - great success of the complex M-4030 at the international exhibition "Interorgtechnique-75"; over 100 positive comments from the leading world companies;
1976 - several employees of the association awarded with the state prize of the Ukrainian SSR for the elaboration and production of the complex M4030 (A.Nezabytovsky, S.Zabara, V.Afanasiev, E.Sakaev, V.Kharitonov, Y.Ozhyganov, A.Melnychenko);
1977 - elaboration and production of the control complex M-4030-1;
1978 - production beginning of the models for the small computer international system; production of the SM-3 machine;
1979 - the production beginning of the small computer next model SM-4; production of several peripherals, elaborated by the research institute had begun, among them were the alphanumeric printing device, the memory storage devices on the magnetic tapes and hard disks, accumulating devices on floppies, the device for graphic information entry, the device for seismic information registration, the graphical display;
1980 - creation of the M-4030-1 based automated control system that serviced the Moscow Olympiad; elaboration and production of the automated projecting system in radio-electronics ARM2-01 (construction designing);
1981 - several people of the RPA staff awarded with the State prize of the USSR for the computer complexes SM-3 and SM-4 elaboration and production (A.Nezabytovskyi, V.Afanasiev, S.Zabara);
1982 - elaboration and production of the automated projecting system in radio- electronics ARM2-5 (micro-program designing);
1983 - creation of a new computer model SM-1420 and its production;
1984 - group of employees awarded with the State Prize of the Ukrainian SSR for the elaboration of the KODIAK automated complex for diagnostic control of the complicated blocks of hardware (V.Sidorenko, M.Berstein, O.Rukkas);
1985 - elaboration of the new SM 1420-1 computer model;
1986 - elaboration of SM-1425 was over; the complex ARM2-01 awarded with the Leipzig international fair gold medal; the computer SM-1800 is working successfully at the floating station "Severny Polyus 28" (North Pole 28);
1987 - first production of the new SM-1814 computer model for exploitation in the hard industrial conditions;
1988 - elaboration completion of the personal computers "Poisk-1" and "Nivka";
1989 - control computer complex SM-1702 creation; computer SM-1425 first production.
The bright example that can describe the creative style of the working team would be the "Vikhr" project (under the direction of O.Sladkov). In 1960s the Soviet space program was developing blusterously; the first Earth artificial satellite was launched; a man has visited space for the first time; the preparation for the space apparatus flight to the Moon was started.
The "Vikhr" project was aimed to elaborate the automation system to test launch vehicle of the space ships, designed for the Moon flights. The task was to gather a large amount of information from sensors, installed on the engine, in a short time (up to 300 sec) and then process them later.
The core of the system consisted of computer "Dnepr", though it had to be significantly modernized. The interruption system was improved, the main memory was extended from 512 to 4096 26-bit words, and the object communication device was elaborated. By the autumn of 1965 all parts of the "Vikhr" were produced and delivered to the design bureau of the Chief designer of the space systems (Kaliningrad city in the Moscow region). In addition to the departments, which worked on the elaboration of the space ships and systems, the center for space flight monitoring was also situated there.
The works on the system were successfully finished on time. Its implementation helped to decrease the testing time of the launch vehicles for the "lunokhod". Thus, Ukrainian scientists, engineers and manufacturers contributed into the first flight of the Soviet spacecraft to the Moon, photographing of its dark side, safe landing of the spacecraft on the Moon.
The Director of the RPA "Elektronmash" Appolinary Nezabitovsky and his deputy and Director of the Institute of peripheral devices Stanislav Zabara played an outstanding role in the enterprise establishing and blooming during the 70-80th of the last century.
Unfortunately, nowadays the "Electronmash" essentially decreased the computer technique production volums. But its leaders managed to save the team of the computer creators, which would definitely help to revive the pioneer enterprise of the computer industry in Ukraine.
Control computer |
Control computer complex
Control computer complex |
|The scientist from the Institute of Cybernetics||AZPU "CM6315", parallel printing device|
|Victor Mova||Stanislav Zabara|
|Vasiliy Yesinenko||Wiring shop for computer modules assembly|
|V.N.Kharitonov, A.D.Shabas||Eduard Sakaev, Yuri Ozhiganov|
|The group of leading developers||Vilia Afanasev, Yuri Krasnokutsky, A.E.Pilipchuk|