According to Essays on history of Computer Science and Technology in Ukraine
author Boris Malinovsky
For more than 400 years, in XY-XIX centuries, up to beginning of XX century, the decimal calculation system was used by calculation tools creators. For digit presentation a wheel with ten cogs was applied, and for numbers presentation- a set of such wheels.
Just this way in XYII century the trivial devices for numbers adding, subtracting and multiplication (Pascal and Leibnits mashines) with 8 to 13 cog-wheels were created.
In XYIII century English scientist Charles Babbidge had designed and partially constructed "analytical mashine" - the first digital calculating mashine with program control, which included five devices, such as arithmetic one, control, input and output memories, like in first computers. The arithmetic device and memory were designed on the basis of more than 50 thousands cog-wheels!
In the middle of XX century along with the changes from decimal to binary calculation system electromagnetic relay and electronic lamps came into usage (almost simultaneously) for this purpose. Then the memory and logic units on ferrit core base became widespread. This and many other quite unreliable and bulky information agents gradually were squeezed by units, based on transistors, which are in perfection process turn to integrated circuit with thousands, and then with millions of components.
Transistors have no competitors for fifty years of it's successful application. It's naturally to ask- who discover the physical phenomena, the transistor working based on? To answer this question, let's discover one more blank spot in information technologies development in Ukraine. It associated with the name and activity of the prominent Ukrainian physicist Vadim E. Lashkarev (1903-1974). He had every reason to be Nobel prize winner in physics for thansistor effect discovery in 1956 along with American scientists John Bardin, Willam Shokley, Water Brattain.
As far as 1941 V.Laskarev published two articles in "Izvestia AN SSSR", physics series, v 5, 1941. He ascertained, that both sides of "closure layer" concurrently to "copper-copper protoxide" partition border have opposite current signs. Afterwards this phenomena was called p-n transition (p-positive, n-negative). "Lashkrev discovered the mechanism of injection- important phenomena, put on the basis semiconductors diodes and triodes action" (from article "On the name of Vadim Lashkarev" by N.Bogolubov and others, "Uspekhi phizicheskih nauk", v 17 issue 2, p. 377-378, 1975.
The first message in American press about semiconductor amplifier-transistor appears in july 1948- 7 years after after article by Lashkarev. It inventors, American scientists Bardin and Brattein came on the way of of so-called point transistor creation on the basis of n-type germanium crystal. The firs encouraging result was get at the end of 1947 by them. However, the device was unsteady, it performances were unpredictable, that's why the device haven't practical application.
In 1951, more reliable flat n-p-n transistor appears in the USA. It was created by Shokley. The transistor consisted of three n, p and n type germanium layers 1 cm total width and was absolutely different to the next miniature, and then invisible integral circuit units.
Even in a few years the importance of American scientists invention became clear and they became Nobel prize winners. Probably, the existed "cold war" and "iron curtain" preclude to add on more prize winner, namely V.Lashkarev. His interest to semiconductors wasn't occasional. From 1939 to the end of his life he investigated it's properties consecutively and fruitfully. In addition to two mentioned above works, in 1950 together with V.I.Lyashenko he published the article "Electronic states at semiconductor surface" (collection of articles, devoted to 70 A.Joffe anniversary. In this article the results of semiconductor surface phenomena were described. Afterwards, this phenomena were put on the basis of integral circuit operation.
He was a manager of point transistors production at the beginning of 50-s (ее century) in Ukrainian Physics institute.
The semiconductor physics scientific school, organized by V.Lashkarev, became one of the leading in the Soviet Union. The act of Ukrainian Institute of Semiconductors organizing and Lashkarev's assignment to director duty was the recognition of his scientific results value.
The scientist was born and get high education in Kiev, then, he worked in Leningrad. Unfortunately, his first years of creative activity clash with the repression years, began after Kirov's murder. He was arrested and deported to Arhangelsk, where he was the head of physics department in medical institute up to 1939. The following most fruitful 35 years he spent in Kiev and left behind big pupils pleiad, who continue his research with success.
To sum up, it possible to say, that Laskarev is a information technologies and computer means pioneer in Ukraine and in the former Soviet Union. It justly enough to call him one of the first transistor microelectronics founders in the world.
Pictures:Academician Vadim Lashkarev
|Copper-oxide p-n diode. Manufactured munitions factory in 1941-1945, was used in military wireless set.|
|Vadim Lashkarev and Sergey Vavilov||Vadim Lashkarev at the Kiev State University|
|The academician Vadim Lashkarev and his students||Academician Vadim Lashkarev|