Microelectronics in Ukraine was developing as a part of the relevant field of the USSR. In 1960s - beginning of 1970s of XX century in Kiev a powerful center of microelectronics - Research and Production Association "Crystal" with branches in other Ukrainian cities was created and successfully functioned. The magnitude of work managed in 8 years, which included development of scientific research, creation of material recourses, staff selection, was reflected in following numbers. There were 148 thousand square meters space built for placing the scientific research organizations and enterprises. All laboratories and plants were completely supplied with necessary equipment. At the beginning of the 1980s more than 30 thousand people worked at the "Crystal". In 1970s-1980s the "Crystal" manufactured its own integrated circuits (including about 30 types of big integrated circuits - BIC), keyboard computers, calculators, microcontrollers, micro-computers, etc. The Ukrainian microelectronics secured the successful development of many industrial spheres of Ukraine as well as of the former USSR. It was used to manufacture the digital radio-electronic gear of planes, rockets, ships, and also to produce the modern consumer techniques, such as radio sets, tape-recorders, etc. For example, in 1974 more than 100 thousand calculators were produced! The "Crystal" became the main organization for the countries of CMEA (Council for Mutual Economic Assistance) for the production of the microcircuits on MOS (metal, oxide, semiconductor) transistors, the dominating path of BIC development. In the 1970s-1980s its products were only a bit inferior to Western counterparts.
At the end of 1980s as a result of the erroneous research and technology politics (volitional decision of the Ministry of Electronic Industry of the USSR to make American technique "soviet") the "Crystal" was forced to start copying the US achievements that beforehand destined its lagging. But the "Crystal" managed to distinguish itself even in the "sovietization" of the first American microprocessors. The 8-bit and then 16-bit microprocessors, elaborated and produced in lots at the RPA, didn't differ much from the foreign ones that was confirmed by the USA expertise.
Following directive of the Ministry of the Electronic Industry, in 1970 the first in the USSR and Europe microcalculator on the 4 big integrated circuits with the integration level of 500 transistors per crystal was created. BIC were produced at the research plant of the research institute "Micropribor"; the assembling of the calculators was implemented in Svetlovodsk, where the branch of this plant was located.
The RPA "Crystal" had main scientific organization - scientific research institute "Micropribor". In 1972-1973 the "Micropribor" unfolded system of machine design on the basis of BESM-6 and other computers that made possible to design BIC with the high integration level. The elaboration time of BIC decreased to 50-70 days. For this purpose a comprehensive complex of programs was developed to enhance design process of BIC, so hundreds of thousands components could be connected according to the functional destination of BIC, and no mistake would be permitted.
The equipment assembling, preparation and programs tuning demanded the tense three- shift work schedule of the "Micropribor" staff during several months.
To produce new BIC it was necessary not only to elaborate an improved design system, but also more progressive technological processes, which would provide the integration level of more that 100 thousand transistors per crystal and the switching rate up to dozens megahertz. Besides, everything was started "from scratch"; the scientists and designers had no opportunity to use the western experience; the publications on this topic had just appeared in the foreign press.
In a short period they assembled the modern "clean" rooms with the sophisticated technological and measuring-composing equipment; they elaborated and implemented the technology of plastic case production for the BIC, etc.
In 1974 at the plant of semi-conducting devices of the RPA "Crystal" the technological process of BIC production was completely coped and for the first time in Ukraine, in the USSR and Europe their mass production was started.
The "Crystal" successfully managed to do this complicated work. The organization of permanent working cycle (from BIC designing to its construction) made it possible to shorten the new BIC and microprocessor technique production period, to increase their quality and lower the price.
For 1974 there were 200 thousand BIC, 100 thousand calculators, and 200 thousand keyboard computers produced.
Twelve years of microelectronics formation in Ukraine (1962-1974) connected first of all with the name of Stanislav Moralyov. He was born in 1929 in Molotovsk, Kirov region. After graduating from school in 1947 he entered the radio department of the Kiev Polytechnic Institute. He worked at the "Arsenal" plant in Kiev as a design engineer on photographic exposure meter elaboration. Here he got acquainted with a famous scientist V.Lashkarev, whose research happened to be very useful for the semi-conductor photographic exposure meter development. Luckily he met a person, who devoted his best years to turn the main scientific achievements into the real microelectronics devices. In 1962 S.Moralyov headed the humble Designed Bureau #3, which he turn into a powerful research institute "Micropribor" in four years. In 1970 the RPA "Crystal" was formed. The research institute "Micropribor" became the leading organization of this association. S. Moralyov, as a Director General of the RPA "Crystal" took a huge responsibility for choosing scientific direction, for staffing, for coordinating the research and designing works with the purpose to implement results into serial productions.
Dedicated work of S.Moralyov was highly recognized in 1970 when he was awarded with order of "Red Labor Banner".
His main assistant in that years was Konstantin Krolevets (1932-1986), a deputy director, a scientific advisor of the works at the "Micropribor", and later - at the "Crystal". He graduated from the engineering physics department of the Kiev polytechnic institute. For 20 years he headed and personally participated in the research connected with the elaboration and production of BIC, formation of the microelectronics devices construction principles, realization of the technological complex with the purpose to produce microprocessor BIC for the gear of economic and special destination. For the last years of his activity he dealt with the elaboration of so-called complementary BIC. It is one of the most promising directions of microelectronics development.
The supervisor of work on elaboration of many BIC, including BIC K1810 - a 16-bit micro- processor, similar to the American Intel x86, was Alfred Kobylinsky.
In 1962 A. Kobylinsky graduated from the Kiev Polytechnic Institute, in 1969 he came to the research institute "Micropribor". He greatly contributed to the elaboration of the theoretical base of microprocessor computers and into their production. He received 8 author certificates of invention on this subject. The Presidium of the Academy of Science of the Ukrainian SSR awarded him in 1983 with the prize after S. Lebedev for the elaboration and implementation of micro- processor technique.
Being fanatically devoted to work, he didn't spare himself. But his health was seriously compromised: he took part in the first atomic bomb-test and experienced constant back and joints pain after that. However, everyone was amazed with his capacity for work, creativity, optimism and courage.
Under the direction of A. Kobylinsky there were elaborated and introduced into series production 30 types of BIC for 8-bit micro- controller, the 16-bit microprocessor sets of high production and a family of mono-crystal computers, which were the firsts in the national electronics.
The chief designer of the semi-conductor memory in the research institute "Micropribor" was Vladimir Sidorenko, a well-known scientist in the field of solid-state electronics. Under his direction and personal participation the new research and technology field of energy-independent memory devices was formed. V. Sidorenko received 74 author certificates of invention and 6 foreign patents (from the USA, Germany, United Kingdom etc).
The solid contribution into the development of the research institute "Micropribor" and then RPA "Crystal" was made by the Doctor of Technical Science, Professor Vladimir Belevsky. Due to his talent and devoted work the vacuum equipment, thin-film technology, the chip workshop and several producing enterprises were created in Kiev, Zelenograd, Ivano-Frankovsk, Vinnista and Svetlovodsk. The engineering and design developments elaborated under his direction were implemented at the enterprises of Ukraine, Russia, Belarus and Hungary. V. Belevsky is the author of 273 scientific publications and inventions; in 1981-1988 he served as a chief production manager at the Ministry of Electronic Industry of the USSR.
Final transition to the new technologies and equipment demanded huge investments, which "Crystal" didn't have. As a result, in the 90s of XX century, the elaborations and products of the RPA were behind the world level. The collapse of the USSR and the long economic crisis in Ukraine deprived the "Crystal" of its market and state funding.
At the end of 1990s a group of "Micropribor" employees headed by E.Utkin began the renewal of microelectronic technologies in Ukraine. Their straightforwardness and enthusiasm brought the results which had seemed impossible. A powerful factory started production of near 200-300 thousand personal computers per year; the microelectronic technologies are put into order; the relation- ships with the Ukrainian and the foreign customers are restored, so to say, the Ukrainian research-and production complex called by its creators "silicon grove" keeps on growing.
Pictures:Stanislav Moralyov, 1965
|Stanislav Moralyov, 1968|
|The district of micro calculators' electric training. 1979||The district of micro calculators' electric training. 1979|
|The first in the Soviet Union and Europe micro calculator. 1970||The integral micro scheme. 1970|
|Scientific Research Institute "Micropribor". 1967||Scientific Research and Industrial Amalgamation "Crystall"|
|The digital specialized computer
||The digital specialized computer |
|Microcomputer "Electronica S5-11"||The experimental production of new products BIS "Penal". 1969|