Intellect controls objects through models according to optimality criteria, which reflect Target-oriented Functions of an Intellect subject.
There is no mystic in intellect: it can be modeled by technical means.
There is the simplest intellect in a cell in the form of genes. Animal brain has been the next stage of development. Intellect attributes are brain (location of models, basic control organs), receptors, executive organs, energy source ("body").
Models: "words", "phrases" and short "texts"can interact with one another both separately and together with accents upon some parts of ensemble, determining new meanings.
Models operation signifies changing of their energy (activity). It is generated by elements (in particular, by neurons), is transmitted by signals and fades when overcoming signal resistance.
The main source of the live intellect activity is sense centers, which are derivatives of demands and desires of those, embodying TF. The situation is the following: intellect controls objects and senses control intellect itself. But live intellect possesses of one very important quality: models can be trained to be more active and to acquire new links between themselves. Because of it intellect is under constant change and transformation. This is the key point of adaptation and creation. It belongs to self-organization as well.
Intellect complication stages reflect evolution periods:
a) cells of molecular models and signals;
b) multi-cells organisms including a human being with models of neurons and signals of nervous-impulses;
c) community with models and word signals;
d) technical systems with their specific models and signals.
Evolution happened to develop the General Intellect Algorithm (GIA) embodied in the consequent activation of models due to programs, realizing "control portions" from a primitive reflex to complicated Functional Acts (FA). They serve to achieve a Target-oriented Function (TF) of an intellect subject. FA consists of independent stages: perception, recognizing, evaluation, forecasting, target determining, planning, taking decision and action.
Each FA stage has its own program, being checked on reality criteria and needs activation as to FA- demands and motives. Demand is happened to act as a regulator, demonstrating the grade of TF-achieving, for example, to satisfy a sense of hunger for TF surviving.
Motives (or desires) mean "action feelings". To satisfy each demand, expressed by a specific feeling there is the "elementary action" - desire, motive. To eat - because of a hunger, to run and to fight - because of a fear, to investigate - because of curiosity, to make orders when one happens to be a leader and so on. Motives give energy for action programs.
In details, FA-steps can be described as follows: perception means receptor coding of irritant energy and its "initial model making ". Recognition is the search and activation of the same model defining it in a system of others and including demand and motive models.
The estimate means determination of usefulness at the given demand state. Target designation means target choice proceeding from motives and initial model. Planning is the choice of the saved action model and estimation of action "hardships".
Solution is to determine whether the "desire" is more than "hardships". In case, it does, "action" is involved to fulfill the plan through activation of models controlled by "affector".
Perception, estimation and saving of results corresponding to the plan.
Stepwise activities take place inside a "phrase" of integral Functional Acts (FA). " Word" activation of the next stage is not accompanied by removal of preceding ones, but only lows theiractivity. In due course, the FA "phrase" is being reduced in steady memoryup to some most active "words', stages, which namely and represent FA in steady memory.
There are some more subsidiary programs in real FA.
Simultaneously, intellect investigates "mental steps" (recognition, forecasting, planning) of many FA with various orientation, importance and duration. They are combined in subordination hierarchy according to targets, time and minuteness and are checked as to non-discrepancy and importance according to demands and opportunities.
To bring the most important FA to the end, i.e. to action, a system of priorities choice has to exist, which reinforces the most important FA at a given moment, inhibiting at the same time the remaining ones. For this purpose the System of Inhibition Strengthening (SIS) exists in our Artificial Intellect models (AI).
Fig.1 "SIS" (System of Inhibition Strengthening Layout)
In a content sense, consciousness is constant reflection of the position of an intellect subject ("the I" model) in the coordinates: space, time, relations with other objects, senses and motives related to TF. In informational sense, consciousness is a selective activity intensification of "phrases" from models- "coordinates", in which the principal "word", "the I" model is to be available. Consciousness mechanism is served due to constant following "coordinates", comparing their activity and selecting the most active model for introduction into SIS. In its turn it gives an additional intensification to the selected model and it turns into "thought". At the next moment, SIS is to switch to another model. This exactly is "flow of consciousness".
It seems important for me to denote the idea of "consciousness level". It is determined on the part of "the I" model's objects of tracing and controlling by "thoughts" .
The first level is available with animals and small children: observing of external world, determining of its irritants. Responses are switched on automatically. At the second level, planning and execution of activity, the complete FA, including speech are added. The third level means following thoughts, their controlling, including switching to unreality or penetrating into other person's thoughts. "Upper limit" of this level is indistinct up to full alienation from reality.
Sub-consciousness is represented by activities with slowed down (from SIS) models. It exercises selection of "candidates" to consciousness for the next SIS switching, provides for automatic observing of external and internal world, as well as for executing the simplest FA. However, it is possible that even some complex psychic processes, including creation occur in sub-consciousness. It is manifested in dreams, intuition and aha factors. Owing to Freud, the teaching on sub-consciousness has acquired further development. Psychologists search ways to use sub-consciousness for treating illnesses and even for increasing intellect potential. It is being used in hypnosis, suggestion, controlled dreams, meditation, yoga and a lot of psycho technique methods. In particular, even computer games, including creating virtual reality use sub-consciousness. Involving new technologies promises to delete a distinction between a reality and invented worlds.
Brain physiology offers analogs of our SUT as combination of functions of Reticulate Formation, mechanisms of Ukhtomskiy's dominant, inductive inhibition of neuron ensembles surrounded by an ensemble of excited and successive inhibition of the most active model.
Intellect self-organization is showed in forming of new models, neuron ensembles, due to establishing links between accidentally excited models (academician Ivan Pavlov!) and increasing their activity in a result of training. Important is "phenomenon of idea fixe", excitation movement in a circle of selected (fallen into consciousness) models with increase of their activity by training.
When it relates to estimation models and programs of interrelation with people, then changes in intellect "reasonableness" may occur manifested in discrepancy between subject's activity and social norms and even biological TF. In it the symptoms of psychopathology are traced
Elementary mind of animals provides for implementation of instincts through models of IMAGES and motions. Complication of GIA with a human being is showed in programs of speech, creation and higher consciousness level, when not only the outer world, but ones own thoughts, as well as penetration into other person's thoughts may serve as an observation object, controlled by active "the I" model.
Thus, thoughts would obtain a chance to exist autonomously and to develop independently: this is "world of thoughts" - unreality field: imagination, hypothesis, creation, science, art.
A human being intellect is "metaphor" like. It means, that various "texts" from detail models may correspond to one general, word or image model ("phrase"). Let's remember, at least, sayings and proverbs, substituting large text fragments with some clever words "from another opera", the meaning of which can be understood only by those, dedicated to. "Metaphor characteristics "participate in creation processes. There based on them fantastic dreams, when criterion of image reality, prevailing imagination in the state of vigilance is switched off. Humor and beauty are likely to belong to this kind of phenomena.
Upon the hierarchy of model generalization and metaphor characteristics a creation algorithm is based, picking out an optimal variant among various variant "texts" of detailed models, which can satisfy task and feasibility criterion.
Human communities possess Collective Intellect (CI), consisting of hierarchy of participant intellects and acting through their speech.
Each intellect has its own shortcomings:
- limited nature (models are always more simple than objects);
- subjectivity (estimations and solutions depend on senses;
- ability to be captivated: changing of model activity due to training, self-organization, shifting of optimality criteria.
Due to the above shortcomings, it is difficult to "prove the truth", to persuade skeptics. The matter is that persons with different estimations and knowledge opportunities react differently upon one and the same complex object, forming for it various abstract models, which are badly comparable and often even differ from one another.
This very matter, truth comparability relates to problem of faith, science and religion.
Every piece of information on a complex system of "living type" is probabilistic: our mind is able to form for them only generalized but not detailed models. It means, that by acknowledging these models as identical to original we switch on the trust mechanism. The share of trust depends on the fact, how many system's "fine point," we have ignored by getting knowledge. The narrower the mind, the simpler the models, which it creates, the more distanced they are from the original, the more trust is needed to give one thing for another.
The intellect of a human being and animals includes faith, trust (to parents, leader, "authority") into the needs for TF surviving. As any other need, it differs: skeptic used to doubt everything, trusting person trusts to all. The same is true about scrupulousness as to authorities. For a true believer the words from the Bible book mean more, than one's own senses and estimations.
Science works on getting precise models. For this purpose it has created an instrument of evidences, decreasing a share of faith in truth knowledge. The religion used to substitute all evidences with authorities words. The faith in God grows to be the principal knowledge instrument.