"The social being" happens to be the product of evolution, which has supplemented organic needs with the perfect intellect, provided with expanded memory and creative program.
In combination with the herd existence of his ancestors, these virtues originated the community, which in its turn, has brought a human being to the updated level by adding verbal thinking to the image-bearing one. Intellect has embodied itself in creation: in signs, things, religion, science and art. However man's biological nature manifested in needs has been still preserved and is revealed in the human behavior.
By the way, a human being was formed on the Earth and not beyond its limits. The whole gamut of his fossil men testifies to it, as well as almost full (98%) coincidence of his genes with those of the chimpanzee.
Perfection of a human being manifests itself in rising of his consciousness level and in "broadening his horizons": his knowledge range is enlarging, objects of watching and governing are expanding from external subjects to internal thoughts, to incarnation and to actions with unreal models (art, games).
Behavior is governed by needs: by feelings and motives, by desires and elementary action programs. Together they represent unconditioned reflexes, derivatives of instincts.
1. Self-preservation consists of two programs: (a) fear - defense (to run away or to fight); (b) hunger (to eat). Here also belongs the need to have some property and to make food supply.
2. Reproduction instinct manifests itself in establishing a family. Consists of two components: (a) sex (desire and actions); (b) loving feeling towards children (to caress).
3. Herd instinct of a human being is expressed by a number of needs (desires), such as: (a)communication, self-expression: to watch people, to listen to them and to talk to them; (b) self-approval: a strive to uphold one's independent position; (c) leadership: to govern other people, to lead after oneself; (d) imitation, subordination: a necessity to believe in the authority, to obey, to imitate; (e) sympathy: to understand another partner's feelings.
There also available the so-called "relation feelings": love, hatred and aggression with their own set of motives and programs. And there is one more need to belong to a herd.
4. Another group is comprised of the "working" reflexes, corresponding to any kind of activity: intellectual curiosity, reflexes of target, freedom and a need to play a game.
Every need can be manifested in two opposite qualities: egoism - altruism; aggression - patience; leadership - subordination; greediness - kindness; isolation - sociability.
Preference of one component can be stipulated by surroundings, personality type and education. However, the second component is always "present" in sub-consciousness; and is ready to join when circumstances change.
It is important to underline genetic priorities of instincts. Of principal importance is saving of one's own life. Reproduction is at the second place. However, at certain periods of reproduction, the latter gets to be of paramount importance.
Herd instinct is positioned at the third place and only sometimes it can dominate over the above-mentioned ones. The numerical expression of priorities ("which one and for how many") depends on the type of personality and education.
Mechanism of upbringing in early childhood can be interpreted as "imperative", later it is accompanied by imitation of authorities: parents, teachers, friends. Further on, it is followed by formation of one's own convictions changing person's needs and their analyzing. The role of teachers and parents is very great but not self-dominating: but self-organization is also present here!
Individuality of a man is determined first of all by one's character. It represents energy of the intellect's "power station": the maximum activity level, determining an ability to strain oneself. Accordingly, will is the program of consciousness concentration and bringing of the chosen FA to an end inspite of the hardships. As to character classification, I distinguish strong, middle and weak character types. In the lune with the basic characteristic features, there are some secondary ones, such as egoism-altruism, pessimism-optimism, realism-dreaminess, impulsiveness-persistence.
Which feelings-demands and desires-programs are considered to be the most important?
1)dependent on the succession of instinct origin in the course of evolution: self-preservation (reproduction, herd instinct);
2)dependent on the personality type and conditions;
3)Dependent on upbringing and education, training and convictions.
Greatest desire -i.e. what one needs for the happiness is called a pretension. However, when some projected goal happens to be achieved, one adapts oneself to it, happiness is diminishing and the motives to action are reducing. To get it all back, new motives forcing new efforts are needed. Consequently, adaptation and pretension growing are the engine of the progress.
Demands of people are contradictory: egoism-altruism; aggressiveness-patience; leadership-subordination; collectivism-individualism. Domination of one of the components depends on the type of a personality, education and conditions. However, the second component is always "present" in the sub-consciousness and is ready to be engaged in case of conditions changing.
Genetic demand priorities in combination with person's character and abilities determine personality's character type. For example, among the strong types there are (a) power-loving (because of leadership); (b) money-grubbers (because of property, greed); (c) researchers (because of intellectual curiosity); (d) heroes (because of rare combination of leadership and altruism. To the weak types belong all subordinates and imitators. And so on.
Leaders are especially important. These very persons but not the great mass of the population determine the progress of society. Besides the above-mentioned "normal" types, there are a number of pathological personality's components with the most intricate combinations. Realization of the born types in the community depend on education (not very strongly), convictions, conditions, return relations in the self-organization system.
Besides "organic" demands, the behavior is being determined by convictions. They are presented by some word patterns, such as: "good - bad", "how it should be".
Convictions comprise morals, ideology and faith. Their value in action motives amount to a quarter of the feeling value. When we add to it a quarter of the altered demands stipulated by education, we shall find out, that organic nature of a human being can be only half changed.
Is it much or little? I believe, rather little. For this very reason, I am convinced in primacy of the biological origin in social deeds.
The amount of needs satisfaction is expressed in integral feelings "pleasant-unpleasant" and Emotional Comfort Level. Extreme points are expressed by emotions: joy, grief, anger:
Feelings and actions of interrelations "From" or "To" are most significant for understanding of the society. Here the return answer is of greatest importance. It leads to friendship or conflict. Up to cruelty.
In 1990 I made an attempt to clear up some quantitative characteristics of human psychology by organizing a questionnaire among experts (psychologists, sociologists, philosophers, teacheres, physicians) through the Literaturnaja Gazetta (Literature Newspaper).
There were offered some concrete questions proceeding from my hypothesis on the thinking mechanisms. More than five thousand answers were received. The processing of 500 answers resulted in the following: Difference of characters, corresponding to their ability to work and leadership made up the ratio 3:1 between the strong and the weak. Upbringing (education, religion, and ideology) could change the natural needs by 25%. The experts made the following conclusion as to the averaged succession of priorities on feelings (needs): pain, fear, hunger, sex, property, communication, leadership, interest, freedom, game. The priorities are different with the strong, the averaged and the weak types.
There are biological ethics roots: need in love, faith, authority, justice, and truth. Side by side with it, there exist cruelty, aggressiveness, and most of all - egoism. It exceeds altruism by 20 %.
Psychology can be manifested in the model of a personality. It sums up the motives and actions stipulated by the society reaction: how the labour is to be paid and how to punish for protests?
Model of a personality presents (in a very simplified way) the system of four equations. From the society: "labour-payment" - is the stimulus. "Labour-weariness" - is obstacle.
From the citizen: "payment-feeling". It shows how "satisfaction" increases with getting payment and decreases because of fatigue (depending on the force of character). After solving the system of equations, it can be determined, how much a person can work, how much it can earn and what Level of Emotional Comfort (i.e.happiness or misfortune) it can acquire.
Simple variant of the model is enlarged with accounting of many needs, introducing a dynamics, i.e. "hope-disappointment" feelings.
Models are made for various activity modes: labour, learning and entertainment with different set of needs. Significant outgoing parameters of the model besides "labour" there are expressions "in favour" and "against", reflecting subject's attitude to the government, ideologies and social groups.
"Generalized personality" models are needed for modeling of a community. Data were received on the basis of sociological questionnaires organized by the newspapers "Nedelya" and "Komsomolskaya Pravda" in 1990-1991.