Human society originated from a herd. Ethnologists described its ethics in the following way: Everyone used to get food only for oneself and one's kids, without sharing it with somebody else and was inclined to take it away from others. There existed various models of marriage relations: hominydes were polygamic and the fight for partners was the main source of males' conflicts. Great communication demand made individuals to form groups according to sex, age, family relationships, "interests" and the leadership used to force them to fight for the first place. ("Peking order" in the hen flock!). Fights for a female, leadership or food used to be often but never ended in murder. Herd leader happened to win his place in the fight and to govern his subordinates despotically. All representatives of another herd were considered enemies. The herd used to consolidate and fought vigorously against its enemies. Kids and weak individuals were protected. There existed justice of exchanges by communication: with caresses, services, as well as with threats. Mutual relations were worked through in games.
Sometimes there used to occur in herd some elements of elite, democracy and collectivism.
A state happens to be also a herd, but there act in it not individuals but groups. They are organized by force of the herd instinct and civilization factors: division of labour, property, origin, wealth, etc. Corresponding to every factor there organized groups with their own leaders. And accordingly, - with antagonism as to other groups.
Collective Intellect (CI) of the society is embodied in intellects of its members. The degree of intellects'summing up and centralization depends on ideology, state system the level of scientific and technical progress, economy and culture. CI is allotted with general shortcomings, such as limited nature, subjectivity, but especially by the feeling of enthusiasm about something - self-organization, as the result of creative work of many people.
Social evolution started from the invention of tools, signs and speech. Speech was especially important. It enlarged the communication of primitive people, provided the information accumulation in a herd, and strengthened governing of collective actions. Independent languages separated people from one another and turned them into hostile tribes. What is important, that speech laid foundation for abstract thinking, i.e. for general notions. In particular, for "I' and They", for life, death and immortal soul. And later- also for gods. The idea of the only powerful God turned out to be a necessity to believe in highest authority together with the causation principle and referring the causation of essence of all things to eternity.
The of God idea was born due to distributing of causality principle from elementary phenomena on the broad range of processes covering nature and human activities: the hypothesis was advanced that there should be a common bottom of all things in the world. It was called by the name of God. The very faith in God is based on the biological necessity to believe in authority, in a father, in a leader. When the idea of God was combined with the idea of sole immortality, a new spiritual world has originated, parallel to the real one but more significant.
Invention of tools increased the efficiency of labour and hunting. The result of the above was the rise of survival of descendants and tribe enlargement. There appeared conditions for property accumulation and one more (next to the power) source of inequality for people and social groups. Natural aggressiveness and greed of leaders manifested itself in wars and seizure of territories with assimilation of enemies or converting them in slavery.
The progress of human communities (self-organization!) was not always the same. Among thousands of tribes existed in the history, only about twenty had reached the civilization level. The rest had simply disappeared, and some of them still continued their half savage existence in jungles of South America and Africa.
The human society differs from the herd by the ideology. It manifests itself in word patterns: "What is good. What is bad and how it should be". Trained phrases-convictions, derivatives of ideas regulate claims, natural needs, attitudes towards actions of citizens, determining in such a way the efficiency of the society. They also happen to be the starting point of "social passions", which are plenty enough in the history.
Needs happen to be the source of ideologies. There is a great difference in their priorities among the strong and the weak character types, and, in particular, in the importance of individualism and collectivism. There originated out of it the contradictory hypotheses on a just society.
The first hypothesis was formed by the weak ones: all people are equal as to their natural needs, therefore they have to work together and distribute equally the fruits of their labour.
Power means democracy. This hypothesis originated the Christian society and later - socialism.
The second hypothesis was formed by the strong types: people are different as to their potentialities, therefore let everyone work at one's own field and get what one has earned. This hypothesis originated private property and capitalism, as well as the Christianity's
"Protestant ethics". The society has to be governed by the strong and the rich. Selection shall occur through competition.
There are a lot of intermediate ideas among the extreme ones. Though only some of them turned out to be vital.
The property is laid in the need: to stock up food.
Basic parameters of ideology are power, property information and morals.
The property is laid in the need: to stock up food. Appropriation and distribution generated from the power. Alternatives: property (private, state, collective) and economy (planned, market and mixed) were generated by ideologies
Power is the manifestation of leadership. The fear, the subordination and the herd instinct cause obedience to the power. Power, subordination and the faith in authorities happened to be inherited by the society from the herd. The same is true as to the ethics and fairness of exchanges: labour against commodities, commodities and praises against subordination. Power evolution went from the herd leader to the modern democracy. Its alternative is ideological totalitarianism, which is the same by any regime: communism, nazism or religious fanaticism.
Object of power is people. Its CI is small, unstable, inclined to passions and depends on culture, wealth and democracy experience. Unity of people with some charismatic leader ensues only in case of the threat of external enemy.
Information is derivative of curiosity and creation. Its accumulation has started together with speech appearance. Evolution of information - in education and scientific and technical progress. Totalitarian ideologies propagate some restriction of information.
Transformation of morals went from the herd ethics through "taboo", local and then world religions, further - through education development and ideology evolution to total humanism with expanding the person's rights and restricting the state's rights.
Precepts mean beliefs intended to restrain some biological stereotypes widespread in the herd, such as: to steal, to deceive, to change partners. Even to kill. To make to precepts more persuasive, the highest authorities - the God or forefathers' Ghosts threatening with a punishment were mentioned
The communist or race ideologies propagating collectivism and altruism are happened to be the extreme variants of the morals, however, only for the ideology adherents.
In the course of history, the evolution of ideologies was determined by the technical progress followed by the economic and cultural advance (I mention here the true statement of Marx:
"The productive relations used to follow the development of productive forces"). Scientific and technical progress and economy were accompanied by changes in relations of the power and the property which manifested itself in prevailing of some social classes over another ones (aristocracy, bourgeoisie, peasants and proletarians) with further transition to formal equality. This process was accompanied by transformation of the basic need: from the fear and hunger in antiquity to self-affirmation, freedom, knowledge and sympathy in modern times. Accents and ideologies had been changing, as well. First, - fight with the slavery, then - property right. Further -attaining of equality and freedom. Then - general education, state protection of the weak and the poor. Up to abolition of capital punishment!
I have tried to build up a model of society, combining each sphere models into the common one - a state. I modeled links, assumed indicators, dependences, rates and compared statistical data. I have to acknowledge, that I arrived to nothing. In other words, I have made a model, but it happened to be not authentic one. I made sure, that even working in a team, it is impossible to put the matter to an end, in this case, to the model able to control the state. Though, the case was very interesting:
Self-organization is to blame. And above all, the uncertainty of a "human factor" and shortcomings of Collective Intellect.
Correspondingly, there is no "ideal ideology" appropriate for all and always.
How to estimate ideologies? Evidently according to generalized concept of society efficiency. ) Based on modern real indicators, tasks can be presented as follows:
A. "Ownership coordinate". First priority: increase of economics level (GDP), oriented on advanced technologies and education, but not obligatory, on universal happiness. High GIA (General Intellect Algorithm) for the poor and decrease of inequality would be a second priority along with the country's prosperity. Ecology would be the third priority.
Prosperous economics is possible only in the case of hard labor, initiative and economy of citizens of all social classes. To achieve it, the stake should be made on the following. First: strong needs, such as private (!) property and competition, market. Secondly, strong types, leaders should be at stake. It means-inequality. Unfortunately, the fear of unemployment and poverty should be used to stimulate the labor of weak people.
B. "Power coordinates" is not very definite for an efficient society. Certainly, the democracy is a desirable thing but not obligatory. At least, "at the start of the path", when peoples culture is still low. The basic requirement to authorities: to provide order and legality ("Appropriate climate for investors"?) Secondly, low taxes: the budget should not be overloaded with excessive expenses: for defense, administration and even for social needs. Third, to develop an infrastructure. Forth, to control market for the sake of crises avoiding. Only afterwards, the social tasks of authorities are at stake: education, health protection, dosed social protection. At the last place should be the full set of civil rights for everybody.
It should be acknowledged, that importance of democracy for people is far more exaggerated, when comparing with that of income and protection against criminals. The matter is, that democracy is quantitative concept. There are questions: "Who elects? All or there are some restrictions? Who is elected? Just only president or everybody, from the top to the bottom? Are there dosed restrictions or full freedom for meetings, press, TV? I am sure, that any democracy should be dosed according to the level of education, traditions, well-being, as well as to economy efficiency. Any exaggerations can lead to loss of stability and even to a crisis.
In principle, there is no "ideal ideology" which may be good always and for everybody. Compromises turned out to be the only way out.
They are subjects of creative work, like belongings, but there is always the biological basis under them. The authors of ideologies used to choose scale points, corresponding to contradictory biological needs, formulate the idea and disseminate it among people, forming in such a way pre-conditions to win the power.
Implementation of ideologies is the product of self-organization.
Success depends on interaction of many factors: proper choice of ideology, taking into consideration biological needs; leader's personality; initial technological level; economy; culture; former social system; religion; traditions; influence of other states. It all together means, "maturing" of the society for a new idea.
I name such principal scales for the choice of ideology coordinates:
1) inequality or equality;
2) dictatorship or democracy;
3) different forms of property;
4) The God - matter or faith - knowledge;
5) patience - aggressiveness;
7) common - private (or egoism-altruism);
10) values: common to mankind or group (nation, religion, class, ideology).
One failed to determine whether the ideology is optimal when analyzing "the level of happiness of people": sociological studies presented approximately the same degree of satisfaction with the life in both poor and industrial countries what is explained by the adaptation property. Therefore, viability of ideology is being proved by the stability of the state and economic progress, and in general, by its rank's rise in the "herd of states". At present, the preservation of nature is added.
Self-organization and the ability to be enthusiastic about people's CI originated communities and even states, based on some far-fetched ideologies without consideration of biology, technology, economy and culture. For this very reason they happened to be unstable.
Example: Athens democracy, "Jesuitical socialism in Peru in 16th century and Russian communism 1918.
It is impossible to review all ideologies. As an example I compare two modern ones: western capitalism and soviet socialism. I do not intend to analyze "pure ideology"- rights, freedoms, attitude to the God, the difference here is quite clear: "no, no and no" by the socialism.
Below I enumerate the indicators relating to the economy and ecology. I express the difference with the symbolic digital ratio.
Capitalism is almost twice more effective than socialism by the following indicators:
1. Economy growth.
2. Scientific and technical progress.
3. The share of personal consumption.
4. Labour productivity and product quality.
In three times more effective than socialism on the following indicators:
5. Material-and energy capacity of production.
6. Environmental protection.
Socialism is twice more efficient as to (7) social protection and (8) decreasing of income inequality.
It is evident that the first six indicators exceed the last two. Furthermore, the acceleration of economic growth has the tendency to compensate for the issues (7) and (8).
Relating to the question of ideologies, it is worth while to discuss the Materiality of Idea. We have used to the following: there are things and there are ideas; the first ones are stable and realistic, the second - something unreal and illusive. But, this is not true. If the ideas, expressed in words are fixed in brain neurons of million of people and are published in many books, then they are happened to be as real as the things and objects of nature. They control the real actions of people and change the course of history even to a greater degree than earthquakes and floods do. Ideas are the genes of society. Another thing is that they are less stable in historic time than genes. There is some specific point about them: only those ideas are spread, which happened to be in tune with certain contradictory biological needs.
Furthermore, the very ability of the idea to be widespread underlines the importance of the need it is based upon. Let's take as an example the idea of the Kind God: it was spread throughout the world by the world religions and turned out to be the most stable. It means that kind source in the human nature predominates over the evil one. Unfortunately, the same self-organization enables the opposite (evil, e.g. racist) ideas to be provisionally spread as well, because they are also "represented" in contradictory biological needs, though they are less important.
Historic evolution of ideologies may be defined as "the civilization maturing".